Understanding electric car charging is essential in evaluating how electric vehicles fit into your lifestyle. For example, gas cars require frequent trips to the gas station, while electric vehicles are different. Electric cars do most of their charging overnight at home. Outside of long trips, or if you forgot to charge overnight, most electric car owners have no downtime waiting to recharge. Let us start by explaining the basics of electric car charging. After that, we will cover the basics of charging at home and on the road.
Electric Car External Chargers Explained
The first step is understanding what electric car charging is. An electric car charger can mean two different things, one being called an onboard charger and the other an external charger. For this article, we will focus on the external charger. An external charger can also be called electric vehicle supply equipment. The external charger converts AC electricity to DC power, which is stored in your car battery. Each external electric car charger can provide so many kilowatts per hour.
EV Charging at a Glance
|Charging Type||Level 1 (120V)||Level 2 (240V)||DC Fast Charging|
|Access||Universal||Universal||EVs support only one of the above charge ports|
|Typically Found||Everywhere||Found at homes, some apartments, hotels, and places of business||Along freeways and other major arteries|
|Adoption||Plugs into any standard wall socket||Requires electrician to install 240V EV Charger||Only available at public charging stations|
|Charging Speed||Up to 5 miles per hour||Up to 35 miles per hour||Up to 650 miles per hour|
|Usage Requirements||Typically included with EV Purchase||Around $600 plus the cost of installation. Check out EV charger incentives||will require a mobile app to use chargers|
|Average per kWh costs (California)||Local Utility Rates||$.30 per kWh||$.40 per kWh|
Level 1 Electric Car Charging
The least-costly method to charge your electric car utilizes a standard electrical outlet, otherwise known as level 1 charging. The onboard electric charger built into your vehicle is used to plug into an electric socket. However, while level 1 charging is readily available, it charges at a rate of about 2 miles an hour of electricity. Therefore, if you have an electric car battery with a 200-mile range, it could take 100 hours to charge your car. Because of the long recharging time, level 1 charging is not recommended and is used as a last resort, assuming no better options are available.
Level 2 Electric Car Charging
The most common external charger is a level 2. Level 2 chargers are available throughout the country at hotels, malls, and even used in the home. Furthermore, level 2 chargers are a big step up from level 1 charging in that they can charge up to ten times faster. For example, a level 1 wall socket charges up to five miles per hour. Meanwhile, a level two charger can charge around 25 to 35 miles per hour. If you plan to add a level 2 external charger to your home, you will need a dedicated 240v line.
DC Fast Chargers Explained
DC fast charging, or direct current fast charging is the quickest way to charge your electric car. These external chargers run between 400v to 1000v of electricity. Subsequently, these chargers can charge most electric vehicles to 80% battery capacity in about 20-40 minutes. DC chargers are commercially available nationwide but are too expensive for home use, with a price tag of around $50,000. Many companies provide their DC fast-charging network for public use for a fee. On average, expect to pay about twice what you pay at home for a kilowatt of power. Companies like Electrify America and Tesla’s private Supercharger are all DC fast charging providers.
DC Fast Charging On the Road
While on the road using DC fast chargers when on the road is a positive experience. Think of DC fast-charging stations like gas stations for electric cars. Most DC fast-charge stations are near shopping malls or restaurants. So while you recharge your electric vehicle, you can take a bite to eat, take a bathroom break, or do some shopping. I recently took a road trip through the Mojave desert and Mesa, where I stopped at DC fast charge stations,
Home Electric Car Charging Basics
The average driver commutes around 29 miles per day. Most EV batteries have a driving range of over 200 miles, so they can handle their daily commute without charging. Therefore, electric vehicles do most of their charging at home overnight. Convenient home charging requires a level 2 external charger, which can recharge the typical electric car in around 8 hours.
How Much Will it Cost to Setup a Home Charger
Level 2 external chargers can range from $250 to $2,500. You can purchase a good EV charger for around $600. As for installation, you will need to hire an electrician. Angi says the national installation cost for installing your EV charging station is about $400 to $1,200
How Do I know where and when to Charge
Trip planning is relatively easy with electric cars. Within your vehicle’s infotainment system is trip planning software. For example, if you wanted to take a trip from Los Angeles to Las Vegas, your electric car would plan your route with stops at EV charging stations along the way. With most vehicles able to go 200 plus miles on a single full battery, when you stop to charge, it lines up pretty well with when you have to stop for food or a bio break.
Charge Type Determines What DC Fast Chargers You Can Use
One thing to keep in mind is not all chargers will work with every EV. Each car manufacturer supports a specific method for EV charging. For example, Tesla has its proprietary charge port, while the other car manufacturers either subscribe to the CCS standard or the CHadeMO. As a result, Tesla’s charge type can only work with Tesla’s DC fast cable attachment. Teslas can work with ChadeMo and CCS chargers with an optional cable attachment. As of today, outside of Tesla, many electric vehicles seem to be shifting toward the CCS standard.
Charge de Move (CHAdeMO) was designed by a group of automotive manufacturers in Japan and can be found in Nissan electric vehicles.
A combined Charging System (CCS) is an open standard typically found in electric vehicles made by North American and European car makers. Almost all North American EV makers use CCS (except Tesla)
Tesla developed their (North American Charging Standard or NACS) standard for use on their proprietary DC fast chargers (called Tesla Superchargers), which are only accessible by Tesla owners.
The good news is your electric vehicle can guide you to any supported charger through the navigation and trip-planning software within your infotainment system.
The J1772 charge port is used on levels 1 and 2 AC charging. All electric vehicles natively use the J1772 standard except Tesla, which requires an adapter.
What Impacts Electric Vehicle Charging Speeds
Electric vehicle batteries are measured in terms of how many kilowatts of electricity they can store. The more kilowatts a battery can store, the longer it takes to charge fully.
Temperature is a factor in charging speeds. Furthermore, batteries do not like extreme heat or cold temperatures. As a battery charges, it generates heat, and as temperatures rise, the vehicle’s battery management system will slow down the charging speed to prevent overheating. Outside temperates can also further affect the rate of charging as well.
EV Battery Depletion
Many factories impact an electric vehicle’s charging speed. Surprisingly EV battery depletion affects charging speeds. The more depleted an electric vehicle is, the faster the charging speed. Batteries, however, do not charge in extreme temperatures. As charging speeds increase, so do the battery temperatures slowing down the charging rate. Your electric vehicle manages the charging speed to maintain battery health.
How Do I Pay to Charge an Electric Vehicle
Charging at home shows up on your electric bill. While on the road, however, paying for EV charging typically occurs through mobile applications. For example, Tesla owners have their credit cards on file, and when they use one of Tesla’s Superchargers, the owner’s credit card is charged. Other charging networks like Electrify America, ChargePoint, Blink, and others offer mobile applications that can pay.
NACS Standard: A Growing Trend Among Electric Vehicle Makers
Electric vehicles have faced a challenge with unreliable charging stations when away from home, especially with CCS and CHAdeMO chargers. Tesla’s Superchargers have been the most reliable in the industry. To address this issue, starting in 2023, automakers have agreed to use Tesla’s EV connector, known as the Tesla connector. Additionally, SAE International is developing a new standardized connector called the NACS connector, which is designed to be more compatible with other charging standards like CCS. Adopting the NACS connector is a significant step forward for the electric vehicle industry. It will simplify the charging process for drivers, regardless of their car’s brand, and help to increase the growth of the EV market. The following brands will work with NACS.
- Ford: Early 2024
- General Motors: 2024
- Rivian: 2024
- Volvo: Early 2025
- Polestar: Early 2025
- Mercedes-Benz: 2025
- Nissan: 2025
After reading this article, I hope you understand electric car charging better. Researching your electric vehicle can be daunting, but help is available. Visit Electric Driver to learn more about electric vehicles and find one that fits your lifestyle.